Social Science Course List

Students can take a maximum of 4 courses in any one discipline. (One level 1 course and a maximum of three level 2 courses in the same discipline)

Introduction to Geography | 320-100-AB

This course introduces students to the main concepts, themes and methods of geography. It provides an introduction to Human Geography’s major subdisciplines including population, economic, environmental, cultural and urban geography. Students also learn how maps can be used to convey information and analyze geographical problems. The relationships between humans and their environments are stressed throughout the course.

Introduction to Classics | 332-100-AB

This course primarily deals with the history of the Classical Age in the Mediterranean world, and the civilization of the Greek and Roman worlds between 500 BC and 500 AD. Background will be given of aspects of the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages which were essential to the rise of civilized societies and important pre- Greek civilizations (Sumeria, Egypt, Minoans, et al.) of the Bronze and early Iron Ages. This course meets the first level compulsory course requirement for Social Science. There are no second level courses offered.

Philosophical Questions | 340-101-AB

Philosophy is the love of wisdom. It is the pursuit of understanding. It arises out of consciousness, self- consciousness, memory and imagination. It is generated by curiosity, wonder and inquisitiveness about the universe and about our place in it. It is the search to know what is, what could be, and what should be done. This course introduces students to some of the basic philosophical questions by examining works across time and space, diverse cultures and traditions in order to discuss the production and dissemination of ideas, artistic and literary works and their relationship to culture and civilization.

Religions of the World | 370-100-AB

From a world full of spirits to a world without spirit (animism to modern atheism), humans the world over have dealt with issues of belief in a vast variety of manners. This course will introduce students to the basic questions that religious studies and religions try to answer as well as the nature of the beliefs and practices of several different types of faith systems. Students will develop the vocabulary and tools needed to explore religious phenomena and communicate respectfully with others about their discoveries.

Introduction to Anthropology | 381-100-AB

Anthropology is the study of all aspects of human life from the distant past to the present and throughout all areas of the world. In this course you will be introduced to the methods and concepts of physical anthropology, archaeology, and cultural anthropology. Through lectures and labs you will learn about human evolution, the prehistory and history of ancient civilizations, and the diversity of cultures in the world today. This introductory course will provide you with general knowledge of anthropology as well as prepare you for more specialized courses in the field.

Introduction to Political Science | 385-100-AB

This course introduces students to political science and how politics, government and political systems work around the world. It provides the concepts, theories and methods that can be used to understand the political events and controversies in many countries such as Canada, United States, Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan. Topics include the modern state, form of government, political culture, contemporary ideologies, political parties, elections and voting behaviour. This course is a prerequisite for all other Political Science Courses.

Introduction to Sociology | 387-100-AB

This course is designed to provide an initiation to the sociological perspective. Students will be introduced to the sociological perspective and the sociological imagination; linking the individual to society through historical, economic and social forces. The objectives of this course are to enable you to enjoy the study of Sociology and encourage you to pursue further courses in this discipline; to prepare you for research methods; to prepare you for university; and finally to provide you with a sociological imagination which broadens your understanding of your everyday life.

Introduction to Business | 401-100-AB

This course introduces students to the primary functional areas of business study, including management, marketing, accounting, finance, and law. Students acquire an extensive knowledge of business terms and concepts as well as an understanding of the role of business in society.

Students can take a maximum of 4 courses in any one discipline. (One level 1 course and a maximum of three level 2 courses in the same discipline)


Note: Some Anthropology courses are offered as complementary courses. Consult the complementary course section of the course calendar for a list of available courses.
Prerequisite for Level 2 Anthropology courses: 381-100-AB

First Civilizations | 381-250-AB

In this course, students will further their knowledge of the methods and concepts of Archaeology as a sub-discipline of Anthropology and will learn about the transition from hunting gathering to food production. The development of early civilizations in both the Old and New Worlds will be examined through a variety of case studies from Mesopotamia, Asia, Africa, Mesoamerica, and South America. Topics to be covered in this course will include the economic bases of early civilizations, the role of religion in early civilizations, the development of social stratification, and monumental architecture and art.

Peoples of the World | 381-251-AB

Cultural Anthropology looks at the contemporary world in all its diversity. Drawing on case studies and examples from around the world, this course explores the multiple ways people think and act in the world and how global forces affect and transform people’s everyday lives. Topics covered include family, marriage, and gender relations, kinship and political organization, identity, ethnicity, and migration, and religion, myth, and expressive culture. Methods and theoretical approaches used in Cultural Anthropology are also examined. A critical and reflexive perspective is employed to bring students to reflect on their own culture and experience.

Human Evolution | 381-252-AB

In this course, students will further their knowledge of the methods and concepts of Physical Anthropology as a sub-discipline of Anthropology and will learn about human evolution from the early Primates through to modern Homo sapiens as well as about contemporary human biological diversity. Topics to be covered include mechanisms of evolution, Primates and Primate behaviour, the Australopithecines, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, the Neanderthals, early modern Homo sapiens, contemporary human diversity, and the concept of race.

Race and Racism | 381-253-AB

In this course, students will further their knowledge of the methods of Anthropology as these address the concept of race and the social phenomenon of racism. We will look at the history and usage of the concept of race as well as the development of systems of racial stratification. This course has academic as well as personal dimensions: as we seek to understand the meaning of race and racism, we will continually reassess our own beliefs about race. Topics will include the explanation of the Anthropological perspective on race, exploring concepts like discrimination, prejudice, ethnicity, stereotypes and the multiple forms racism takes, as well as case studies including Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, Apartheid in South Africa, Slavery in America as well as racism in Canada.

Amerindians | 381-254-AB

In this course, students will further their knowledge of the methods and concepts of Archeology and Cultural Anthropology as well as of ethnohistory. Studying Amerindian cultures will be the focus of this course, allowing us to appreciate the diversity of cultures present in both North and South America. The course will offer a broad understanding of Aboriginal Cultures, past and present, and their place in modern society. Topics to be covered include ancient Amerindian prehistoric sites and their archeological study, the pre-conquest civilizations and their culture and the current issues of Amerindians integration into mainstream society, cultural identity, racism and discrimination against First Nation peoples.

Anthropology and Contemporary Issues | 381-255-AB

In this course, students will further their knowledge of the methods and concepts of Anthropology in the study of a variety of contemporary issues. The course may address a different issue whenever it is offered. Topics which may be considered in this course include human sexuality in cross-cultural perspective, the anthropology of war and peace, and comparative religion, among others. The specific description of the course will be available from the department each time the course is scheduled.

Anthropology in the Museum | 381-256-AB

Museology is the study of museums and how they have been established and developed as educational mechanisms under social and political pressures. Students will be introduced to the history of museums and the field of museum studies. Issues of theory and practice will be examined through an Anthropological lens as they relate to development, care, and use of museum and systematic collections. Topics to be covered include museum education, exhibit development, issues of diversity, legal and ethical implications in the development and use of collections, and examining the diverse types of collections. This course meets the requirements of a level 2 course in the Social Science Program and addresses the Ministerial objectives as well as the level 2 skills of the Social Science Program.

Evolution and Creationism | 381-257-AB

This course will examine the complexities of the evolution/creationism controversy and the effect it has had on North American society. The theory of evolution is fundamental to understanding modern biology and many topics studied within Anthropology. This course will examine how understanding evolution is relevant to our daily lives, and will also look at the social and religious worldviews that are opposed to the theory of evolution. This complementary course is open to students of all programs.

Anthropology and Environment | 381-258-AB

This course examines human relation to, interaction with, and perceptions of the natural environment from an anthropological perspective. Included is an exploration of human evolution and the relation to the environment, the ways in which environment has been thought about and ideas about it expressed cross-culturally and historically, how environment is ‘captured’ in zoos and botanical gardens, environmentalism and its relation to politics and tourism, and the role of anthropology in development for a sustainable future. This course meets the requirements of a level 2 course in the Social Science Program and addresses the Ministerial objectives as well as the level 2 skills of the Social Science Program.

Anthropology of Sports & Leisure | 381-259-AB

What did our ancestors do for fun? How have leisure and sports activities changed over the course of human evolution and history? Do all human groups enjoy similar leisure activities? Do social differences affect the kind of leisure and sports activities enjoyed? Do men and women enjoy the same activities, for the same reasons? What is the relation between people who do activities and those who watch? How do international sports competitions relate to nations and politics? These are some questions that will be addressed in this course. Using a holistic approach that takes into account the relation between natural and social environments, human biology, and culture, we will explore issues in the Anthropology of Sports and Leisure related to past and present, cross-cultural diversity in practices and perceptions of sports and leisure, and sport on the global stage.

Anthropology of Violence & Conflict | 381-260-AB

This course encompasses a broad study of the history of violence among humans using anthropological theory and ethnographic research, in particular the evidence from archaeological and skeletal evidence. Course lectures and in-class discussions will focus on the theories of the origins of violence, the consequences, and the different forms of violence that vary spatially and temporarily. After a brief overview of the types of data used by anthropologists and reviewing non-human violence, we will discuss evidence of conflict in early human populations, small-group conflict in tribal societies, civil and interstate war, state-sponsored violence and terrorism, and ethnic cleansing and genocide. We will also discuss the correlates of violence, including issues related to social suffering and trauma, the incidences and interpretations of ritualized violence, as well as recovery and reconciliation. We will conclude with analyses and presentations of specific case studies.

Native American Archaeology | 381-261-AB

Anthropology is the study of all aspects of human life from the distant past to the present and throughout all areas of the world. In this course, students will further their knowledge of the methods and concepts of Archeology in the specific area of the Americas. Studying Indigenous past cultures will be the focus of this course, therefore allowing us to appreciate the diversity of prehistoric cultures and great civilizations prior to the arrival of Columbus. Topics to be covered in the course will include ancient American prehistoric sites and their archeological study, The Pueblo people of the South West, the Mesoamerican civilizations (Teotihuacan, Mayas) as well as the South American civilizations (the Incas).

This course also qualifies for the Aboriginal Studies Certificate. For more information please contact

Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights | 381-262-AB

This course provides a broad overview of forensic anthropology – an applied field of biological anthropology that involves the application of methods from biological anthropology and archaeology to the identification, recovery, and analysis of skeletal remains from crime scenes, mass disasters and unexplained deaths. The identification of skeletal and other decomposed human remains is important for both legal and humanitarian reasons. Forensic anthropologists work to determine the age, sex, ancestry, stature, and unique features of a decedent from the skeleton. While proficiency in forensic method will not be the focus of this course, general identification techniques will be addressed.

This course also qualifies for the John Abbott Peace and Social Justice Studies Certificate. For more information, please contact


The following courses – up to a maximum of three – may be taken by SOCIAL SCIENCE students. COMMERCE students are required to take Introduction to Business, one Level Two Business Administration course or Money and Banking (economics). Accounting is recommended for students pursuing business at university.
Prerequisite for Level 2 Business courses: 401-100-AB

Marketing | 401-251-AB

This course introduces students to basic marketing concepts and phenomena. It focuses on the social impact of marketing practices, and defines marketing as the process of creating, distributing, promoting and pricing goods services and ideas to facilitate satisfying exchange relationships in a dynamic environment.

Business Law | 401-253-AB

This course is an introduction to basic concepts in Business Law. It introduces students to the legal environment of business, enabling them to become familiar with our society’s legal structure and the function of law in the business community. The student completing this course should understand and apply the legal principles in the workplace. Also, the student will grasp the need to deal with lawyers/notaries and other professionals and contracts of sale/purchase, leases, etc. Principles of tort liability, including both intentional and negligent torts, are addressed. Finally, legal issues of particular relevance to marketing such as product liability, misleading advertising, warranty and service promises and issues of pricing and distribution, are also examined.

Introduction to Accounting | 401-254-AB

This course introduces students to the fundamental principles and procedures of the “double-entry” bookkeeping system as well as the vocabulary found in business documents. Students learn correct methods of recording and reporting financial data. The importance of correct reporting of financial information for decision makers and its impact on society is stressed.

International Business | 401-255-AB

This course focuses on the impact of International Business from the perspective of the various stakeholders including business, consumers, government, employees and the physical, social, and cultural environments in the trend toward a more integrated global economic system. Students have the opportunity learn about how business, consumer, and political objectives are played out in the global marketplace and how they impact on each other.

e-Business and Strategic Management | 401-256-AB

This course explores strategic management issues while simultaneously examining the rapidly developing area of business conduct on the Internet, referred to as e-business (e-commerce). Internet technology and globalization are only two social environmental forces that are greatly influencing strategic management decision-making. By examining these and other forces, students will better appreciate the strategic thinking that goes on within a variety of organizations.

Managing your Money | 401-257-AB



IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Some universities require successful completion of both Macroeconomics and Microeconomics for entry into their Commerce programs. At some universities students may receive an exemption for Microeconomics and Macroeconomics if their grade is 75% or more. Please check with an Academic Advisor to verify admission requirements.
Prerequisite for Level 2 Economics courses: 383-920-AB

Microeconomics | 383-250-AB

This course acquaints students with the basic principles of microeconomics such as consumer theory, demand and supply, elasticity, production and costs, market structure and behaviour, and the determination of factor incomes. Contemporary topics such as the environment, urban issues and government intervention in the market are discussed. Required course for the Commerce profile.

Money and Banking | 383-251-AB

A continuation of Macroeconomics, Money & Banking involves a more detailed analysis of the money supply, commercial banking system, nonbank financial intermediaries and the functions and operations of the Bank of Canada. A more advanced Macroeconomic model is developed to give students greater insight into the workings of the Canadian economy. Economic policy is discussed in relation to current developments in Canadian and world economies. This course fulfills the additional Commerce level 2 course requirements.

International Economic Relations| 383-252-AB

This advanced course permits students to apply economic principles to a specific field of study. The pure theory of international trade, terms of trade, theory and applications of tariffs, balance of payments and exchange rates are discussed within the context of Canada’s substantial relation to other economies. The nature and effects of international economic institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund are also examined. Although Macroeconomics (383-920- RE) is the only prerequisite, students will find this course more rewarding if they have already taken both Macroeconomics and Microeconomics.


Prerequisite for Level 2 Geography courses: 320-100-AB

Geography of Tourism | 320-256-AB

This course familiarizes students with the geography of travel and tourism. Its main objective is to examine how, why and when people travel and to understand the international, regional and local impacts of tourism. Particular attention is given to the development of tourism as it depends upon and impacts on a region’s physical, economic and cultural environment. The course also examines the main types of tourism including ecotourism. For their research projects, students have the opportunity to explore one country in detail and to design a three week tour.

The Middle East: A Regional Geography | 320-257-AB

The course presents students with an overview of the regional geography of the “Middle East”. The region’s physical environment is discussed, followed by a survey of the human geography of the region. In the second half of the course, case studies of different issues are presented, such as the Arab-Israeli conflict, Islamic fundamentalism, and resource conflicts over water and oil. An emphasis is placed throughout the course on the cultural, economic, geopolitical, and environmental roots of the issues presented.

Geography of the World Economy | 320-258-AB

The objective of this course is to place the subject of economic geography within the framework of world events and to illustrate the growing interdependence among regions with respect to economic theory, development and trade. The roots of the disparities that exist at the world scale will be examined as well as their impact on future economic development. Alternatives to the present world economic system will be discussed.

Cities & Urbanization | 320-260-AB

This course explores the urbanization process and its role in producing geographical differences among cities around the world. World urbanization patterns and the historical development of different types of cities are used to highlight a range of contemporary urban problems and planning issues, including social inequality, the provision of housing and employment, transportation planning and environmental concerns.

A Global Crisis? | 320-261-AB

This course offers students the opportunity to apply and analyze concepts and theories associated with the human “population crisis” and the related resource issues of food production and energy supplies. With a global population that has now passed 7 billion people, should we be worried? Students will read and discuss materials from different perspectives and produce a research project relating to the question “is the world overpopulated?”.

Environmental Geography | 320-262-AB

This course provides students with the opportunity to analyze and apply the concepts and theories of environmental geography. The main issues addressed include environmental sustainability, the consumption of resources and the environmental impacts of human activities. Students will draw on the knowledge acquired to study human impacts on ecosystems for their term project.

People, Places, Nations | 320-263-AB

This course challenges students to analyze and apply concepts related to the study of cultural, social and political geographies. It examines the interplay between place, space and identities in the formation of social, cultural and political territories and the resulting conflicts between groups. The major themes in the course include landscape and the environment, the geographies of language and religion, global and local cultures, community and territoriality, state and sub-state nationalism, and inter-ethnic conflict.

Geography of Sports | 320-264-AB

This course explores the intersection of sports and geography. Sports are a central part of landscapes and everyday lives of people around the world. They reflect and shape national identities, historical and contemporary political economies, and the places in which we live. These connections, places, and landscapes are studied at different scales, from the global to the local, through the concepts and perspectives applied in cultural, historical, economic, population, urban and political geography.

History and Classics

Classics provides an excellent introduction to the origins of modern civilization, while presenting societies refreshingly different from those you may have already encountered. Second level Classics has university equivalencies, at both McGill and Concordia. Students who achieve a 75% (Concordia), 80% (McGill), or higher in 330-255-AB and 330-256-AB may pass straight to the 300 level in the History and Classics department of these universities. Note that these are equivalencies only and students will not receive university credit for college level courses.
Prerequisite for Level 2 History courses: 330-910-AB (or 332-100-AB for courses marked with a *)

History of Canada and the World | 330-250-AB

This course will allow the student to better understand their world through an examination of Canadian history and Canada’s relationship to the rest of the world. We will examine facets of the social, cultural, economic and political history of Canada from the period of the first European explorers up to the end of the 20th century. Within this time period we will study Canada’s role in a rapidly changing world. The following topics will be covered: early European exploration, colonialisation, native American society and early relations with the Europeans, New France, British North America, Confederation, building a Nation, World War One, the Winnipeg General Strike, the Great Depression, World War Two, Canada and the Cold War, the Quiet Revolution in Quebec, Quebec Separatism, Canada’s role in International Affairs, and American-Canadian relations.

History of the United States | 330-251-AB

This course covers the colonization of America and the founding of the American republic. The following topics are examined: development of American institutions, slavery, Civil War, construction, western expansion, World War I, “Return to Normalcy”, the Great Depression, World War II and the Cold War, civil rights & Vietnam.

Modern History: 20th Century and International Relations | 330-252-AB

This course covers the following topics: World War I and the Treaty of Versailles; post-war tensions and economic problems in the 1920’s; Stalinism in Communist Russia; failure of the Weimar Republic in Germany; the Great Depression and the rise of Totalitarianism; Mussolini and Fascism in Italy; Hitler and Nazism in Germany; failure of the League of Nations and outbreak of World War II; aftermath of World War II; the Cold War, United Nations and the superpowers; emergence of the Third World and Communist China; threats to world peace and the nuclear age – Korea, Vietnam, the Middle East and the breakup of the Communist world.

History of the Developing World: The Third World | 330-253-AB

This course explores definitions such as Third World, colonies, colonialism, imperialism, under-development, development, neo-colonialism, unequal trade, North-South relations, European expansion from the 15th to 20th centuries and division of the world. Case studies on Latin America, India, Africa, Asia and the Middle East are used to look at the rise of nationalism, independence and liberation. Ideas, movements and leaders are also course themes.

Lost Civilizations | 330-254-AB

This course is a survey of basic techniques used by archaeologists to uncover information about ancient societies. The course surveys several such societies (Classical Mayan, Mesopotamia, Bronze Age Crete and Ancient Egypt) from the point of view of archaeology; what is known; how was the knowledge derived; what are the issues still unknown or in contention.

Ancient Greece: From Troy to Alexander: A History of Sparta | 330-255-AB *

This course studies the history of ancient Sparta from its legendary origins until the Roman Empire. Analysis involves the examination of the historical events that shaped Sparta, as well as in-depth studies of Spartan civilisation from political, geographic, economic, religious, and cultural standpoints.  Finally, the module looks at the reception of Spartan history in the twentieth century.

Ancient Rome: Republic to Empire | 330-256-AB *

The decades before the fall of the Roman Republic are characterised by political violence, civil war, and the rise of military strongmen. The period, from the rise of the brothers Gracchus in the 130s BC to the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44, is one of tumultuous political change, and throughout much of this time we are blessed with the writings of Rome’s preeminent lawyer and orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero. Intellectual, gifted, honest, vain, insecure, and short-sighted are all adjectives that have been used to describe Cicero and his career. His works present insights, sometimes personal, sometimes propaganda, that allow us to examine this period in far greater detail than we can most. We shall consider the significance of oratory and the writing of history in the late Republic, and the importance of military leaders such as Caesar and Pompey. At the conclusion of this course, students should have a greater understanding of the internal problems that revealed the shortcomings of Republican government, and how these eventually led to the Republic’s fall and to the rise of the Principate. Furthermore, participants in the class should be able to analyse the major events discussed within the course and should have formed their own opinions concerning when the Republic fell, and if this can be dated to one specific event, or was a gradual process.

History of Russia & the USSR | 330-257-AB

The course will examine the main events in Russian and Soviet history from Kievan Rus’ to the collapse of the Soviet Union. A study of Russian/Soviet history will provide the students with an understanding of a civilisation which spanned Europe and Asia. The following topics will be covered: Kievan Rus, the Mongol conquest, the rise of Muscovy, Imperial Russia, the Russian Revolutions of 1917, the Civil War, the New Economic Policy, Stalinism, the Great Patriotic War, the Cold War, the Khrushchev era, the era of Stagnation, the era of Glasnost and Perestroika and the collapse of the Soviet Union.

History of Latin America | 330-258-AB

This course studies the history of Latin America from 300 C.E. to 21st century events. It starts with the pre-conquest Maya, Inca and Aztec. With the European conquest in 1492 examines the colonial origins of Spanish, Portuguese and French-speaking nations; European, African, Asian and indigenous cultures blended in new ways. With Independence in 1810, common issues emerged: nationalism, poverty, revolution, dictatorship, indigenous rights, popular music, literature, and nationalistic art. Country highlights include Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Cuba and Haiti.

The Rise and Fall of Empires | 330-259-AB

The idea of empire and the historical study of imperialism will be examined through a brief review of the Roman Empire followed by the study of the Mongol Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Spanish Empire and the British Empire. A comparative approach to the different empires will be employed.

History of Japan | 330-261-AB

This course is designed as an introduction to the history of Japan, from its prehistorical dawn to the challenges it faces in the present day.  It covers the major time periods of Japanese history: early state building, the “Middle Ages” of the samurai, challenges from the West, and rapid modernization during the 19th and 20th centuries.  Social and cultural movements feature prominently, as does the interaction between events in Japan and larger historical trends in Asia and the world.

Ancient Mediterranean Warfare and Society | 330-260-AB

Warfare is the defining characteristic of ancient Mediterranean history; it was one of the most frequent subjects for representation in art, the main focus of nearly every history, and at the core of all major economies. While this course will concentrate to an extent on battles, tactics, and armies, greater weight will be given to the social aspects of war, how conflict shaped entire societies, their histories, the economic and political power of families and individuals, as well as concepts of citizenship and gender.  Hence, the goal of this module is to illustrate how the study of ancient warfare is in reality the study of ancient society itself.


Being philosophical entails exploring such fundamental questions as: What can we know, and how? What is the good life? Can we achieve it? Are we free, or is every act caused? Is beauty just in the eye of the beholder or out there in beautiful things? Do we have immaterial minds or souls as well as material bodies? Is the universe orderly or chaotic? Are there correct rules of thinking? Philosophy is a systematic attempt to understand the world and our experience. Philosophy questions basic principles, assumptions, and prejudices. Philosophy courses will encourage students to seek their own answers to the Great Questions systematically and critically, in the context of the thoughts of previous seekers from around the world. Philosophy courses are also offered by the Liberal Arts and Creative Arts, Literature and Languages programs.
Prerequisite for Level 2 Philosophy courses: 340-100-AB or 340-101-AB

Philosophy of Education | 340-252-AB

What is the point of education? What is worth learning? Where should learning take place? A philosophy of education critically examines how knowledge is organized and transmitted. Can reality ever be represented “objectively”? How do the presuppositions that operate in different societies end up in the curriculum? Are we educating the next generation so that they may participate meaningfully in collective life or are we instructing them in alienation and apathy?

Social and Political Philosophy | 340-253-AB

Social and political philosophy examines notions of power and authority within large groups (communities, societies, states). The key questions are age-old: What is the purpose of government? What is the best form of government? Are humans fundamentally equal or unequal? What are our rights and obligations to others? Is war an acceptable way to solve disagreements? Answers to such questions will vary according to historical context. Ancient civilization endorsed slavery. The Christian era equalized all humans before God, but did not support social mobility. Modern political theory grants natural rights to all, opening the door to market-based progress. Critical theory of today shows the paradoxical loss of freedom in the era of mass society. This course may explore both Western and non-Western traditions.

Philosophy and the Crisis of Modernity | 340-254-AB
This course investigates the philosophical dilemmas raised by the apparent successes of the modern world: scientific and technological development, the recognition of human rights, the growth of democracies and mass markets, the separation of Church and state. Can modernity truly realize its ideals of happiness, social justice, and human dignity? Is the modern citizen condemned to anguish, loneliness and loss of meaning in a fast-paced world that erodes traditions and pursues unending material progress? Answers to these questions are provided by various critical and radical theorists.
Environmental Philosophy | 340-255-AB

This course examines human relationships to the environment and whether we have obligations to future generations and other species. How can we approach our interconnectedness with all life forms residing in the natural world? What resources (poetic, epistemological, philosophical, moral, spiritual, political, scientific, and so on) can we draw upon for tentative answers to these enduring questions? What are, for example, the practical implications of various philosophical theories and positions for deforestation, pollution, climate change, habitat destruction, species extinction, and nuclear energy?

Political Science

Prerequisite for Level 2 Political Science courses: 385-100-AB

Modern Political Ideas: An Introduction | 385-250-AB

This course provides a basic introduction to the political ideologies of the left, center and right – from communism, socialism, liberalism and conservatism to fascism. It also examines the origins and development of these ideologies, focusing on how these ideologies inspire political movements such as antiglobalism and environmentalism.

International Politics | 385-251-AB

This course introduces students to the world of international politics. Topics include the methods of studying global politics, war, conflict management, diplomacy, international law, international terrorism, human rights, global ecopolitics and international organizations such as the United Nations, NATO and the International Court of Justice.

Political Ideologies and Regimes | 385-252-AB

This introductory course in comparative politics examines the basic theories and methods that are used to understand the diverse political systems that exist in the 21st century. It includes a framework for the comparison of the political structures, processes and ideological background of states around the world such as Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, China and Japan.

Canadian Politics | 385-253-AB

This course introduces students to the political challenges that determine the dynamics of Québec and Canadian politics, focusing on Canadian federalism: the tug of war between federal and provincial governments. Topics include Québec nationalism, the parliamentary system of government, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the judicial system and other aspects of the political process, including political parties, elections, interest groups, political leadership and ideologies.


Psychology is the study of the mind and the behaviour of humans and other animals. It employs the scientific method as much as possible. The study is made on many levels, from the biological workings of the brain to relationships between people. Psychology courses help students understand what they and others do, think and feel, from infancy to old age.
Prerequisite for Level 2 Psychology courses: 350-102-AB

Child Psychology | 350-250-AB

We all share the human experiences of birth, growth, and change. This course examines the physical, cognitive, and social development that occurs from prenatal development to adolescence. Emphasis is placed on an understanding of the interaction of nature and nurture, and how development occurs within contexts and cultures. By studying the theories and research on human development the student will become more sensitive to the complexities and ambiguities inherent in understanding child psychology.

Interaction and Communication | 350-251-AB

Communication makes us human: whether at school, work or play we are constantly absorbing information, asking questions and trying to make sense of and share our discoveries. We often take this feature of our experience for granted, not realizing that social interaction and communication are skills which can be studied and improved upon to enhance the quality of our lives.
This course exposes students to the patterns of communication and social interaction and helps them appreciate the potential for personal development that may follow. Topics covered in this course include relevant components of the processes of human interaction and communication; self-image, self-confidence, and their characteristics; interpersonal perception; verbal and nonverbal communication; obstacles and suggestions for enhancement; decision making and problem solving; work groups; leadership and membership; assertive and compliant behaviours and their consequences.

Mental Health | 350-252-AB

This course is designed as an introduction to abnormal behaviour. Topics include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia and other syndromes. Course content includes the classification of disorders, various theoretical perspectives on etiology and therapy, and relevant research.

Social Psychology | 350-253-AB

This course explores the behaviour of people in groups. It examines the individual’s reaction in the group as well as the process of group interaction. Major topics include the formation and functioning of groups, attitudes, roles, leadership, prejudice and aggression. The impact of interpersonal relationships will also be explained.

The Human Brain | 350-257-AB

This course is intended for anyone interested in the “mind-body problem” or how a biological organ, the brain, can give rise to what we call “the mind”. Topics include the biological basis of perception, sleep and dreams, language, thinking, emotion, and memory. The study of these topics will be undertaken on many levels, from the identification of the major brain areas involved to the understanding of basic biological processes occurring at the level of neurons or nerve cells. Students will also be introduced to the basic research methods used to study the brain. Special attention will be given to brain dysfunctions and what they reveal about the mind and brain connection.

Psychology of the Paranormal | 350-258-AB

This course focuses on what psychology has to offer regarding the study of phenomena as yet unexplained by formal science. Topics covered range from extra sensory perception and altered states of consciousness to ghosts, ufos, and psychics. The evidence for the existence of such mysteries as well as possible explanations of them will be explored. A general review of theories and research on the psychology of learning, perception, cognition, consciousness, and personality will form the basis from which to consider paranormal phenomena.
Furthermore, this course emphasizes the development of critical thinking skills and the appreciation of the benefits, both intellectual and personal, that may be gained from investigating these issues. Whether you see yourself as a skeptic or a believer or are simply curious, consider yourself welcome.

Evolutionary Psychology | 350-260-AB


Psychology of Learning and Memory | 350-261-AB

This course provides students with an introduction to the basic processes and principles of learning and memory. Topics include the nature-nurture debate, the basic learning paradigms (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning), the nature of memory and how it works. The underlying biological basis of learning and memory within the nervous system as well as factors which strengthen learning and memory will also be emphasized. Special attention will be given to practical applications to everyday life.

Psychology of Sport | 350-262-AB

Fascination with sport has reached new heights. This course examines sport behaviour within the current models and perspectives of psychology. Topics include the social psychological dimensions, personality assessment, aggression and sport violence, anxiety and stress management, and leadership in sport, drug abuse, and athletic motivation. Within these topics consideration will be given to children and adolescents in sport, high-risk athletes, minorities, the female sport experience, and the role of the coach in sport. Further analyses include the nature of the sport psychologist and the applications of mental preparation for the elite and professional athlete.

Sensation and Perception | 350-264-AB

This course will introduce the student to the scientific study of sensation and perception. The central theme is the illustration of how our senses do not function as a digital camera, taking an exact picture of our environment. On the contrary, our senses detect information from our environment like viewing pieces of a puzzle, and actively builds an internal representation or final percept (puts the pieces together to form a complete picture), be it visual, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory, of the outside world. Students will examine the role of both physiological (sensory pathways) and psychological (experience, memory and cognitive) factors in these fundamental processes. They will illustrate how the nature nurture struggle applies to even these basic sensory capabilities.
It will be shown how our percept is typically an accurate representation of the environment but is not immune to perceptual errors (illusions). The question remains, are these errors or are they the by-products of efficient rule-governed and experience-based systems. Visual topics include brightness, object perception, attention, color, depth, size and motion processing. Other sensory systems, including hearing, touch, smell and taste, will also be explored.

Seminal Studies in Psychology | 350-265-AB

In this class we explore the research and findings of several prominent psychologists who have made significant contributions to our understanding of human thought and behaviour. We will explore some of the most famous, the most important and most influential studies in psychology. Our analysis of these studies will allow you to gain further insight into the breadth of psychology and its many sub disciplines. We will analyze seminal studies in biology and human behaviour, perception and consciousness, learning and conditioning, intelligence and memory, human development, emotion and motivation, personality, psychopathology, psychotherapy and social psychology to name a few.


Religious Studies attempt to analyze and understand the variety and nature of human faith/belief systems and their impact on all aspects of personal, social, economic and political life. Religion continues to be a major force for both unity and division in our world and religious beliefs and practices inform, shape and transform the human story every day. Religious studies, by examining and illuminating these belief systems, explore the variety and richness of the human response to questions of cosmology, fate, purpose, destiny, the unknown and the unknowable. Courses are also offered in the Liberal Arts and Creative Arts, Literature and Languages programs.
Prerequisite for Level 2 Religion courses: 370-100-AB

The Problem of Evil | 370-252-AB

Where do the notions of heaven and hell come from? Do communities share beliefs about heaven and hell? This course investigates some of the origins, development and significance of these ideas, as well as the concept of an afterlife. We also explore the history of personified evil in the person of Satan or the devil. We will explore how the concepts of Heaven and Hell can be used to justify a merciful God despite the existence of evil in the world, and how they are used to justify suffering and violence in this world.

Ritual and Tradition | 370-253-AB

What is the relationship between ritual practice and transcendence? How do myths provide practitioners with “models of and for reality” and a language for spiritual experiences? By what ritual means can one deepen spiritual understanding and create a meaningful reality? Through an examination of these and other questions, this course will focus on the day-today practice of religious communities both contemporary and historical.

New Spiritual Movements | 370-254-AB

How do new spiritual movements worldwide challenge or complement traditional religions? In this course we will discuss new possibilities explored by individuals and groups dissatisfied with religion. These will include a selection of pre-Christian practices, New Age movements and reinterpretations of ancient traditions. We will examine how these attempts to create a spiritual journey resonate with contemporary reality.

Religion, Body and Myth | 370-255-AB

Bodies! Everyone has one. Religious traditions and spiritual communities have generated energy, anxiety, excitement, anguish, joy and love over what to do with them. Is the body to be denied, overcome, embraced, trained? May we modify, mutilate, reject, tattoo or terminate our bodies? Love, decorate or praise them? Are gender norms and sexual practices part of religion, or are they socio-cultural expressions? The body is seen as an obstacle to leading a good or spiritual existence and is also celebrated as a gift that can lead to understanding the divine.


Sociology is the scientific study of society and an integral discipline of the Social Science program. Sociology courses give students valuable employment skills: • a critical understanding of the impact of social context • the ability to analyze information • the ability to communicate clearly and persuasively • the ability to do sociological research. Sociology prepares you for a fascinating range of careers from television producer, social worker, journalist, lawyer, educator, and survey researcher.
Prerequisite for Level 2 Sociology courses: 387-100-AB

Introduction to Sociology 2 | 387-250-AB


Mass Media and Popular Culture | 387-251-AB

This course applies the ‘sociological imagination’ to understanding the media and its influence on our everyday lives. We discuss the historical, social and economic forces that explain the content of the media and whose reality is actually being portrayed. We analyze the differences in the representations of the “haves” and “have nots” in the media and how different races, classes and genders are portrayed. How does limited media ownership influence our media and who benefits from the content of our media?

Love, Relationships and Family | 387-252-AB

While love, relationships and family are by no means dying or withering away, they are currently experiencing many profound and extensive changes. This course examines historical changes the family and intimate relationships are undergoing and the implications these changes have on our everyday lives. Topics include premarital and extramarital sex; cultural definitions of romance and love; domestic violence and intimate terrorism; cultural intermarriage, and the impact of reproductive technologies.

Sociology of Sexual/Gender Relations | 387-253-AB

This course examines the historical, legal, and cultural contexts of sexuality and gender.  Understanding contemporary sexual matters requires considering how sexuality varies through time and place and how it is modeled, shaped, and even manipulated by individuals and institutions.  We shall explore sex and gender as social issues influenced by culture, politics, economics, media, education, medicine, law, family, and friends.  This course applies social theory and methods to the study of   sexuality and gender.  The course will show that some social institutions and some individuals in society have more power to control and define a society’s sexual agenda than others.  At the same time, social control is usually met with social resistance, and the readings feature examples of successful individual and cultural resistance to societal expectations and oppression.

Sociology of Education | 387-254-AB

Education is the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure. This course examines many issues that arise with regards to education in Canadian society including who is to decide what should be taught in public school and the purpose of education.
In addition, students will learn about the history of schooling, residential schools, public and private schools, the rise of the meritocracy and credentialism, technology in schools, global perspectives in education and home schooling as social phenomena. Sociological theories and perspectives will allow the student to explore race, class and gender as areas of concern. Students are encouraged to examine their own educational experiences and to envision what the future of school and education will be like.

Race, Ethnicity and Structured Inequality | 387-255-AB

This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of structured inequality in Canada based on race and ethnicity. The course offers a multidimensional analysis of prejudice, discrimination, and racism by discussing how dominant group-values, norms and conflicting ideologies affect the development and maintenance of inequitable social, economic, and cultural systems and structures in Canada. Also, racism is analyzed by looking at how it is manifested in government, education, media, human services, employment, justice, and law enforcement.

Current Social Issues | 387-256-AB

Sociology helps us gain a better understanding of our social world and of ourselves. It enables us to see how behaviour is largely shaped by the groups to which we belong and the society in which we live. This course allows the individual instructor to choose a topic of study that is most relevant in each semester. Every topic is examined from a sociological perspective enabling the student to understand social phenomena in depth and to understand the place of the individual within a social setting. Topics may include; terrorism, diversity, social change, digital media, or any other current, important issues in society today.

Environmental Sociology: The Green Revolution Game | 387-257-AB

Environment, food, agriculture and society are aspects of our everyday lives. This course enables the students, through lectures and role -playing in the “Green Revolution Game” to make decisions, which will have positive and negative effects on the environment as they try to have their farm survive. Through this decision making process students will learn how industrialization impacts the environment. In addition they will become more aware of how society and the environment interact. This is a level 2 course that applies the sociological imagination to becoming an active citizen with a more in-depth global perspective.

Crime and Social Control | 387-258-AB

This course is designed to provide students with an introduction to the perspective of sociology and its application to the areas of crime, deviance and social control. The course explores a wide range of sociological and criminological theories to help provide a broader understanding of the background of crime, criminals, criminal organizations as well as the mechanisms of social control that are supposed to help prevent and prohibit crime. Throughout the course we will explore areas of debate in the criminal justice system, including the classic dichotomy of who makes and who breaks the law, how we measure crime, how we respond to crime, how we prioritize crime, how we punish, who we punish and the effects of these processes on society as a whole. Throughout this course we will rely on current and historical events as key examples to create a context in which to study crime. We will work together to maximize our learning in the discipline of sociology, as well as our ability to think and write critically. The course will be of practical value to students considering a career in sociology, criminology, law, police sciences, social and correctional work.

Social Problems | 387-259-AB

Learning about social problems can be a highly rewarding experience for the students. Although we live in difficult and challenging times, a social problems course can provide a way to develop critical thinking and teach the student how to apply sociological concepts and perspectives to analyze specific social problems such as violence, abuse, drug addictions, crime, terrorism, war, and other pressing social problems. To the students taking this course, welcome to an innovative examination of social problems, their impact on our society and our everyday lives – one of the most stimulating and interesting fields of study in sociology.

Sociology of Cyberspace | 387-260-AB

Sociologists have long been interested in the ways in which culture and media impact social life. This course focuses on one aspect of the media: Cyberspace. Students will examine Cyberspace and the Internet from a Sociological perspective while exploring the social implications of this technology. This exploration will lead to many areas of interest including identity and community; online gaming; pornography; hate online; journalism and blogging; censorship and privacy. Throughout these explorations we shall bring with us our inquiring minds and our sociological perspective.

Level 1 prerequisite courses
Calculus 1 | 201-103-RE

This course includes a review of algebra, functions, limits, continuity, differentiation, the derivative with business and other applications; curve sketching, optimization; derivatives using exponential, trigonometric and logarithmic functions. Required course for Commerce and Social Science with Math profiles.

Calculus 1 Enhanced | 201-103-EN

This course is the same as 201-103-RE, but with an extra hour of class time per week.

Level 2 prerequisite courses
Human Biology | 101-901-RE

Human Biology is a concentration course for Social Science students in the psychology profile. Focusing on cell physiology, human reproduction genetics and on the regulation of homeostasis by the nervous and endocrine systems, this course offers an opportunity to develop an understanding of the biological concepts which play an important role in human behaviour.

Calculus 2 | 201-203-RE

Prerequisite: 201-103-RE
In this course, students learn about indefinite and definite integrals with applications (area, consumer’s and producer’s surplus), integration techniques, partial fractions, integration by parts, use of integration tables, differential equations (first order separable) limits using l’Hôpital’s rule, improper integrals, sequences, series and convergence of series. Required course for Commerce and Social Science with Math profiles.

Linear Algebra | 201-105-RE

Prerequisite: 201-103-RE
This course covers the solution of systems of linear equations, matrices, determinants; vectors in 2-space and 3-space, dot product, cross product, lines and planes, introduction to concepts of linear combinations, spans, subspaces, linear dependence and independence, basis, dimension, row space, column space, null space and applications.

Advanced Quantitative Methods | 201-301-RE

Prerequisite: 360-300-RE
This course reviews topics covered in Quantitative Methods (360-300) and extends these topics with the following statistical concepts: probability, empirical probability, axioms and fundamental theorems, conditional probability, independent events, probability distributions, statistical inference, random sampling, estimates of mean and proportion, confidence intervals, tests of hypothesis, tests of the population proportion and population mean, test of fit (Chi Square). Students wishing to enter certain university programs in Psychology may require this course as a prerequisite. Recommended course for Social Science students.

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